1. API

    Abbreviation for “Application Programmer’s Interface” or “Application Programming Interface” is a program part provided by a software system to other programs for connection to the system. It defines a programming interface for program connection at source code level. The provision of such an interface usually includes the detailed documentation of the interface functions with their parameters on paper or as an electronic document.

  2. Applet

    Applets are programs that perform narrowly defined tasks, such as performing calculations, drawing diagrams or evaluating forms. Applets in SCOPELAND are synonymous for generated pages and if an external program code is generated from them, such as from web pages or printable reports, they consist of applets accordingly.

    No matter how one constructs a SCOPELAND applet for data views, a tree structure of the direct views is always created. The concept of the tree structure is very important in SCOPELAND and should be understood as a developer with SCOPELAND. All generated applets consist of metadata and are stored as such directly in the metadatabase.


  1. Cascading Style Sheets

    Cascading Style Sheets ( CSS ) is a formatting language for HTML documents. It can be used to create and edit the design and layout of a page. A Cascading Style Sheet can be integrated directly into an HTML file or be outsourced to an external file.

    Syntax : In CSS properties are defined within rule sets. These consist of one or more selectors followed by an open curly bracket. Several declarations and values can now be assigned in this area. The area is then closed again with a closing curly bracket.













  2. Client

    In most cases, PC networks are characterized by the fact that they contain two types of end devices: clients and servers. The clients use services, so a workstation connected to the server is called a client. The client sends requests from the user to the server in a special protocol and displays their responses on the screen in a legible manner.

  3. Client/Server – Application

    An application that is divided into functional components in such a way that the overall performance is performed by several computers. This ensures that each functional component is executed in the most suitable system environment. The client controls the entire process and usually also the interaction with the users takes place at the client. The server takes over services according to the client’s requirements. Typically, these services include the provision of centrally available data, a model of a network structure or a database concept with a hierarchical distribution of tasks. The server is the provider of resources, services and data – the workstations (clients) use them.

  4. Cookies

    A cookie is a small file containing text information that must be initiated by the web author of the respective web page and is then regularly transmitted by the web server to the local web browser.

  5. Cluster

    A cluster is the smallest possible storage unit on a data carrier. For hard disks, for example, a cluster has a size of at least 2048 bytes.

    In addition, clusters are groupings of entity types (e.g., the grouping of all natural persons employed in a company into the class “person-natural”) that are related to each other due to their use by common functions. By grouping them in clusters, areas are found that are largely independent of each other and allow further development in different real projects.

  6. Custom Software

    Individual software is software specially developed for an information system.


  1. Database

    In general, a database is a collection of data that is related to each other. Databases are used, for example, to manage orders, customer addresses, images or archive information. For this purpose, specific information is summarized in tables, which in turn consist of individual fields. For example, a table for orders contains the fields “customer number”, “order data”, “order number”, etc.

    The “Customer addresses” table, for example, contains the fields “Customer number”, “Name”, “Street”, etc., which are linked to the “Customer addresses” table.

  2. Database(hierarchical)

    Hierarchical databases use tree structures as a form of representation. The hierarchical graphs consist of a root object type, from which relationships only start to subordinate object types. There are unique relationships between the object types.

  3. Database(logical)

    A logical database is a data structure description, which represents the connections between information objects independently of the target system, under the consideration of access desires and the data type (relational, hierarchical, network-like). The logical data structure is independent of the physical storage system.

  4. Database (physical)

    A physical database is a database in which the segments are physically stored according to the hierarchical order. The hierarchical order corresponds to the use in a software system.

  5. Database (relational)

    A relational database contains a set of tables on which certain operations are performed. Each table consists of a table name, the table header, and the actual data stored in the table. The table header consists of a set of fixed attributes, each attribute being assigned to a range of values.

    The relationships of the data among each other are not predefined, but are created arbitrarily by the contents of the fields (table columns, attributes).

  6. Database management system (DBMS)

    The database management system is the software needed to set up, manage and protect databases. It includes

    • Database processor that must be active during the runtime of the user programs in order to manipulate the database
    • Utilities that are activated on a case-by-case basis
  7. Data model

    A data model represents the logical relationships of all terms used in a reference area. It therefore consists of information object types data elements and relationships.

    Conceptual data model: The conceptual data model describes the data structure from the domain-oriented point of view. It consists of a set of object types, relationships between them and the descriptive properties of the object types, each object being uniquely identified by an identifying property.

    Semantic data model: A semantic data model is the representation of the informational relationships of a certain reference area, e.g. a software system. It is the result of data modeling and consists of entity types, relationship types, attributes, and integration conditions. The documentation consists of a verbal part (data catalog) and a graphical part (ER model).

    Syntactic data model: Syntactic data models, also called “classical” or “traditional” data models, are the hierarchical, the network-oriented and the relational data model.

  8. DCOM

    DCOM is the abbreviation for “distributed component object model”. This technique is used to integrate distributed applications in a network. A distributed application consists of several processes that perform a task together. DCOM can therefore be used to divide the work in the network, e.g. many PCs calculate a photorealistic computer image or an animation.

  9. Dialog

    A dialog represents a completed transaction from a business point of view. It consists of one or more masks and dialog control.

  10. Dialog call

    A dialog call is the execution of a dialog for which the user has entered an order key.

    It consists of a sequence of dialog steps that are uniquely determined by the associated dialog control based on the entered keyword and the associated software system data (if available) as well as any control data entered by the user.

  11. Dialog process control

    The dialog process control has been developed as a table-controlled and event-controlled dialog control system and control system for complex dialog applications with a high degree of integration on the basis of IMS/DC. It provides the user/application developer with functions, modules, guidelines and standards for the coherent development and design of dialog applications.

  12. Direct Desk

    The Direct Desk is the client software and the Windows based program component of SCOPELAND with which the applications are developed. Inside the Direct Desk there is a code generator that generates a program code for a desired target platform. This can be for example Java, WinForms.NET or ASP.NET code. With the help of metadata, you can now create and communicate with databases using the Direct Desk. This allows the user to interactively gain immediate and direct access to the stored data.

  13. Direct Server

    The Scopeland Direct Server connects to the database and only needs to be installed on one computer.

  14. Direct View

    The applets (pages) of a SCOPELAND application consist of data views, which are arranged like a tree structure. A Direct View is an active object in it, which independently provides the currently valid data content and receives changes and saves them back to the database or data source, comparable to a “dataset” in a .net environment. However, a direct view also contains a content structured description of the data view, which is also hierarchical in nature. A Direct View represents one data view.


  1. Entity types

    An entity type represents a uniquely named collection of entities that have the same characteristic features.

    Examples of entity types are:

    • The grouping of all natural persons (entities) employed in a company into the class “person-natural” (entity type).
    • The grouping of all products (entities, e.g. telephones, faxes) that a company produces into the class “Product” (entity type).
    • The grouping of all organizational areas of an enterprise (entities, for example, sales, purchasing) into the class “Organizational area” (entity type).
  2. Excel files

    With Microsoft Excel you can display and calculate extensive spreadsheets, formulas and mathematical functions. These can then be generated in tables and, if required, stored in a database.

    SCOPELAND can read and save data from an Excel table. Usually in SCOPELAND an Excel template can be easily viewed by opening the mask containing the call for the “report generation” and then clicking on the template in the menu “Develop”. The selected file will then be opened directly in Excel. This template can be found in the Project Folder/Subordinate Pages path.


  1. Foreign keys

    A foreign key is the attribute in a table whose value corresponds to the value of the primary key in another table. For example, if a primary key from one table points to another, it has the function of a foreign key. This can be a simple key or a compound key. This depends on how the primary key is composed.


  1. Geographical information system

    GIS is the abbreviation for “Geographical Information System” and can be embedded with SCOPELAND. With a geographical information system, spatial data can be captured, processed, analyzed and presented. In SCOPELAND such a system can be realized with Streetmaps or Googlemaps.


  1. Information management

    Information Management is the term used to describe the information systems used to provide the employees of a company with the information required for their respective tasks.

  2. Interface

    The interface of a system describes all sizes required from the outside and all sizes supplied from the inside, as well as the general information for the use of the system.

    The interface also refers to a program routine that adapts transfer parameters to the conventions of another software system (for example, database interface).

    • Connection possibility for peripheral devices of the computer,
    • Interface between protocols, programs, services etc.


  1. Macro

    If several statements, commands or declarations occur more frequently in a certain order in a program, then it makes sense to combine them abbreviatingly to a unit, a so-called macro or macro instruction. You have to assign a unique identifier to such a macro instruction. These identifiers can be used at any position in the program text.

    These can be combinations of individual instructions, e.g. a sequence of commands and processes or a combination of key and mouse clicks, which can be held and stored. If a macro is called, the recorded processes and actions are automatically processed again in the corresponding order.

  2. Mask

    With the help of a mask, a schema displayed on the screen for displaying the input or output of data is technically defined.

    A mask is a screen form that facilitates the input of large amounts of data, e.g. by specifying fixed locations for all data fields of a data record.

    • Form with fields that require an appropriate entry. A form is to facilitate the work at the computer particularly in relation to extensive inputs
    • In image processing programs: a color, a color or an image area is protected from changes or specially selected for processing
  3. Meta data

    Metadata is stored in SCOPELAND in the metadata database. The metadata contains the following data:

    The complete data model, consisting of databases, tables, fields and relations. All used resources such as image directory and menus. Optionally, additional logic can also be packed into the metadata and are globally effective, e.g. plausibility rules, calculation rules, superimposition of system events.

    In the metadatabase all used data, their properties and links, their specific features in the application logic and the way in which the data should be presented on the user interface are stored. Since the metadata contains all the data required for an application, SCOPELAND can automatically generate a finished program code.

  4. Meta database

    The metadatabase is an additional database that is usually stored on the same database server as the important application data and contains the metadata of the application to be created. No special server components are required. A metadatabase is created at the beginning of a project creation with SCOPELAND in the Direct Desk.

  5. Meta-model

    Model to describe models. The meta-model is used for structuring and classification.

  6. Model

    A model is the image of a real system or problem. Models are created by coarsening and neglecting unnecessary details (abstractions) to make complex systems understandable, so that e.g. a replica on a computer is also possible.

    In the development environment IEF the term stands in connection with the central encyclopedia (CE) for a number of logical areas in which the physical CE is divided. The superstructure is formed by the models of application management and the models of IV resources (e.g. reusable objects, interfaces). These models are also called roof CE.

    There are also business process areas:

    • MUP (management, business planning)
    • TDP (service and product development)
    • AWI (order processing)
    • BIS (basic infrastructure)
    • SKP (business processes)

    They each form a logical CE.

  7. Module

    A module is the smallest self-contained unit of a program. It is the simulation of one or more subordinate modules using stubs (synonym: placeholder – a stub is the simulation of one or more subordinate modules). A subordinate module is a module that does not call any other module) and has drivers running independently, exact interface definitions and processing definitions and can be considered as a black box for program structuring.


  1. Object manager

    In the object manager in SCOPELAND you can apply various operations to databases and their contained objects. Among other things, you can change views, create search fields or search tables, change table names (both physical and logical).

  2. Object type

    Basic element of the meta-model. An object type characterizes a set of objects in the development database that are described by identical attributes.

  3. ODBC

    ODBC (Open Database Connectivity) refers to Microsoft programming interfaces for database access. It is a standardized method that allows access to databases without taking into account from which program or operating system access is made. Modern programming environments allow uncomplicated access to many different database management systems (via prefabricated data-sensitive controls). The data access never takes place on a table or a database, but always over the appropriate (ODBC) component. With ODBC, any local or remote data source can be accessed.


  4. OLE

    Stands for Object Linking and Embedding and is a method of sharing information. Data from a source document is linked to or embedded in a target document. When the data is marked in the target document, the source application is opened again so that the data can be edited in the familiar environment with the necessary functions. The OLE functionality is available to all applications under Microsoft Widnows as an operating system component and is used intensively within the Office product family and also by other manufacturers of Windows applications.


  1. Parity

    Parity initially means “straightness”. In the EDP one understands uner “parity” test procedures, in order to discover possible errors, with the data communication. For this purpose, the so-called “parity bit” is used during transmission to clarify in advance whether the sum of the transmitted bits is even or odd. The “parity bit” is an additionally transmitted bit that serves simple checks of the integrity of the data. With odd parity, the sender of a byte calculates the cross sum of the bits and sets the parity bit. The receiver adjusts the checksum of the received data using the parity bit. If this is the same, then the data transmission was ok.

  2. Path

    Path is the name for path specification or directory path.

  3. Permanent Relation

    In SCOPELAND, a permanent relation is all logical relationships between tables that are not temporary.

  4. Primary Key

    The unique primary key is a unique key in a relational database that uniquely identifies each column of a table. This key value may only occur once in a table. To be able to distinguish them, you simply give the table a primary key with a unique ID.

    Artificial primary key : If there is no unique column in a relational database, you can use an artificial primary key (surrogate key). This key is inserted as an additional column in a table and then serves as the primary key.

    A primary key consisting of a combination of several attributes is called a composite primary key. You must make sure that each combination of attributes occurs only once. If, for example, there is a table “Employees” which does not have a unique primary key, you could combine first names, surnames and the respective birthday to form a primary key.


  1. Real data

    Real data are modified active data, i.e. real data are data specially constructed or converted for testing, which on the one hand resemble the active data and on the other comply with data protection requirements.

  2. Register

    A register is the memory area of a processor. Among other things, there are registers for data, addresses and commands.

  3. Relations

    A relation is generally a relationship that can exist between entries in a database.

    1:n Relation

    A 1:n relation symbolizes that the respective primary key of the initial table (of the parent) is entered in the detail table (child) as a unique selection condition, regardless of whether permanent or temporary references exist. A 1:n relation means that exactly one data record from the output table can be assigned to at least one or more data records from the referenced table. As a rule, the 1:n relation is the most common relationship type in a database application.

    n:1 Relation

    An n:1 relation, also called a reference relation, creates joins with other tables within an SQL statement. As in the 1:n relation, the permanent globally valid relations represent the normal framework of all reasonably permissible links. Similar to temporary relations, the starting point (the key field) is also marked here and then latched into the Direct View with a simple menu function in SCOPELAND, another separate open table at this point. This allows the user to put together completely individual data views or to implement completely different selection functions in the application.

    Temporary reference relations are automatically created when a newly created search field refers to the (technical) primary key of the table when it comes to selecting a concrete data record. Then the pseudo field refers again to the own table and this relationship causes then the selection function from the own table.

  4. Relational database management system

    A relational database is used for electronic data management in computer systems and is based on a table-based relational database model. The associated database management system is called a relational database management system or RDBMS.

    With an RDBMS, relational databases can be created, maintained and administered. Data is stored in structured tables and is clearly related to each other. SQL (Structured Query Language) is usually used to access the data.

  5. Relationship type

    Relationship categories are formed from relationships. A relationship type represents a uniquely named collection of meaningful relationships between entities of two or more entity types. A relationship type can be a carrier of new properties.

    An example of a relationship type is the set of all relationships that represents a purchase transaction between natural persons and products. These relationships then form the relationship type “buy”, for example.


  1. Selection screen

    The selection screen is the “main tool” for creating filter fields or viewing and testing SQL statements. In the selection mask, the generated tables can be displayed and field or column attributes can be viewed more closely. Basically all operations of tables and their contents can be done in the selection mask (filter, contents and more).

  2. Server

    Derived from “to serve”: central computer in a network that provides clients with data, storage and resources. The network operating system is installed on the server and the network is managed by the server.

  3. Shortcuts in SCOPELAND

    An overview of many important shortcuts for SCOPELAND


    Ctrl + 1 Display DV directory

    Ctrl + K Data view control, selection mask

    Ctrl + M Open mask view of selected table

    Ctrl + N New record

    Ctrl + T Open table view of selected mask

    Ctrl + Alt+O Open object manager

    Ctrl + Tab switch between opened windows

    Alt + Tab to switch between open applications

    Ctrl+ L Customize menu (language and generator settings)

    Layout :

    F9 Switch to the design view

    F11 Glue in

    F12 Release again

    Properties and Navigation :

    Ctrl + Alt +Return table properties

    Alt + Return page properties

    F5 Refresh/reload page

    F7 Previous data record

    Shift + F7 First data record

    Shift + F8 Last record

    Shift + F5 Load menu

  4. Scalability

    Scalability means the affected system is upgradeable or expandable.


  1. Template

    Templates are used as templates in various areas:

    Format template for generating static and dynamic Internet pages.
    Text processing programs use templates to store information about margins, fonts, etc. These can then be used by different texts
    In C++, for example, templates are used to make type binding more flexible. A template is something like a template for a function or class definition. The definition or declaration of a function is kept variable and only used during compilation.

  2. Temporary relation

    You need a temporary relation if, for example, you want to add a second dependent table to the same table in one view. This means that the temporary relation would be colloquially “used up”, i.e. you need another temporary relation.


  1. User Interface

    Via the user interface, the user and the software system exchange information with each other. The user interface includes:

    • the dialog system
    • the dialogs
    • inputs and outputs (layouts of masks and lists, forms for data input and output)

    The user interface serves as the basis for the design of the software system and can be coordinated with the future users of the software system at the beginning of the development of a project via prototyping.




  1. XML files

    XML is short for “Extensible Markup Language”. It is mainly used for hierarchically structured data and is designed so that both humans and machines can understand it well. SCOPELAND can generate and read semantically and syntactically correct XML code. The application possibilities are versatile, e.g. XML can be used to describe, store or exchange data. XML is often used to import or export application data.


    Similar to HTML, there are so-called “tags” in XML, which consist of pointed brackets : < ' >. These tags can either stand alone ( ) or be enclosed by opening and closing parentheses ( Contents ). Tags can also have one or more parameters (